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Комментарии

1

Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/.

2

Steve Lohr, For Today’s Graduate, Just One Word: Statistics, New York Times, August 6, 2009.

3

Steve Lohr, For Today’s Graduate, Just One Word: Statistics, New York Times, August 6, 2009.

4

Baseball-Reference.com, http://www.baseball-reference.com/players/

5

Trip Gabriel, Cheats Find an Adversary in Technology, New York Times, December 28, 2010.

6

Eyder Peralta, Atlanta Man Wins Lottery for Second Time in Three Years, NPR News (блог), November 29, 2011.

7

Alan B. Krueger, What Makes a Terrorist: Economics and the Roots of Terrorism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008).

8

U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements, http://www.census.gov/en.html.

9

Malcolm Gladwell, The Order of Things, The New Yorker, February 14, 2011.

10

CIA, World Factbook, и United Nations Development Program, 2011 Human Development Report, http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/.

11

Baseball-Reference.com.

12

Robert Griffith, The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate, 2nd ed. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987), p. 49.

13

Catching Up, Economist, August 23, 2003.

14

Carl Bialik, When the Median Doesn’t Mean What It Seems, Wall Street Journal, May 21–22, 2011.

15

Stephen Jay Gould, The Median Isn’t the Message, с предисловием и заключением Стива Данна (Steve Dunn), http://cancerguide.org/median_not_msg.html.

16

См. http://www.movieweb.com.

17

Box Office Mojo (boxofficemojo.com), June 29, 2011.

18

Steve Patterson, 527 % Tax Hike May Shock Some, But It’s Only About $5, Chicago Sun-Times, December 5, 2005.

19

Rebecca Leung, The ‘Texas Miracle’: 60 Minutes II Investigates Claims That Houston Schools Falsified Dropout Rates, CBSNews.com, August 25, 2004.

20

Marc Santora, Cardiologists Say Rankings Sway Surgical Decisions, New York Times, January 11, 2005.

21

Интервью на National Public Radio, August 20, 2006, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5678463.

22

См. http://www.usnews.com/education/articles/2010/08/17/frequently-asked-questions-college-rankings#4.

23

Gladwell, Order of Things.

24

Интервью на National Public Radio, February 22, 2007, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7383744.

25

College Board, FAQs, http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2010/correlations-of-predictors-with-first-year-college-grade-point-average.pdf.

26

College Board, 2011 College-Bound Seniors Total Group Profile Report, http://research.collegeboard.org/programs/sat/data/archived/cb-seniors-2011.

27

См. http://www.netflixprize.com/rules.

28

David A. Aaker, Managing Brand Equity: Capitalizing on the Value of a Brand Name (New York: Free Press, 1991).

29

Victor J. Tremblay and Carol Horton Tremblay, The U.S. Brewing Industry: Data and Economic Analysis (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005).

30

Australian Transport Safety Bureau Discussion Paper, Cross Modal Safety Comparisons, January 1, 2005.

31

Marcia Dunn,1 in 21 Trillion Chance Satellite Will Hit You, Chicago Sun-Times, September 21, 2011.

32

Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything (New York: William Morrow Paperbacks, 2009).

33

Garrick Blalock, Vrinda Kadiyali, and Daniel Simon, Driving Fatalities after 9/11: A Hidden Cost of Terrorism (неопубликованная рукопись, December 5, 2005).

34

Источником общей информации о генетическом тестировании является Human Genome Project Information, DNA Forensics, http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml.

35

Jason Felch and Maura Dolan, FBI Resists Scrutiny of‘Matches’, Los Angeles Times, July 20, 2008.

36

David Leonhardt, In Football, 6 + 2 Often Equals 6, New York Times, January 16, 2000.

37

Roger Lowenstein, The War on Insider Trading: Market Beaters Beware, New York Times Magazine, September 22, 2011.

38

Erica Goode,Sending the Police before There’s a Crime, New York Times, August 15, 2011.

39

Источниками данных о страховании рисков являются: Teen Drivers, Insurance Information Institute, March 2012; Texting Laws and Collision Claim Frequencies, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, September 2010; Hot Wheels, National Insurance Crime Bureau, August 2, 2011.

40

Charles Duhigg, What Does Your Credit Card Company Know about You? New York Times Magazine, May 12, 2009.

41

John Tierney, And behind Door No. 1, a Fatal Flaw, New York Times, April 8, 2008.

42

Leonard Mlodinow, The Drunkard’s Walk: How Randomness Rules Our Lives (New York: Vintage Books, 2009).

43

Joe Nocera, Risk Mismanagement, New York Times Magazine, January 2, 2009.

44

Robert E. Hall, The Long Slump, American Economic Review 101, no. 2 (April 2011): 431–69.

45

Alan Greenspan, Testimony before the House Committee on Government Oversight and Reform, October 23, 2008.

46

Hank Paulson, Speech at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, August 11, 2011.

47

The Probability of Injustice, Economist, January 22, 2004.

48

Thomas Gilovich, Robert Vallone, and Amos Tversky, The Hot Hand in Basketball: On the Misperception of Random Sequences, Cognitive Psychology 17, no. 3 (1985): 295–314.

49

Ulrike Malmendier and Geoffrey Tate, Superstar CEOs, Quarterly Journal of Economics 124, no. 4 (November 2009): 1593–638.

50

The Price of Equality, Economist, November 15, 2003.

51

Benedict Carey, Learning from the Spurned and Tipsy Fruit Fly, New York Times, March 15, 2012.

52

Cynthia Crossen, Fiasco in 1936 Survey Brought ‘Science’ to Election Polling, Wall Street Journal, October 2, 2006.

53

Tara Parker-Pope, Chances of Sexual Recovery Vary Widely after Prostate Cancer, New York Times, September 21, 2011.

54

Benedict Carey, Researchers Find Bias in Drug Trial Reporting, New York Times, January 17, 2008.

55

Siddhartha Mukherjee, Do Cellphones Cause Brain Cancer? New York Times, April 17, 2011.

56

Gary Taubes, Do We Really Know What Makes Us Healthy? New York Times, September 16, 2007.

57

U.S. Census Bureau.

58

John Friedman, Out of the Blue: A History of Lightning: Science, Superstition, and Amazing Stories of Survival (New York: Delacorte Press, 2008).

59

Low Marks All Round, Economist, July 14, 2011.

60

Trip Gabriel and Matt Richtel, Inflating the Software Report Card, New York Times, October 9, 2011.

61

Jennifer Corbett Dooren, Link in Autism, Brain Size, Wall Street Journal, May 3, 2011.

62

Heather Cody Hazlett et al., Early Brain Overgrowth in Autism Associated with an Increase in Cortical Surface Area before Age 2 Years, Archives of General Psychiatry 68, no. 5 (May 2011): 467–76.

63

Benedict Carey, Top Journal Plans to Publish a Paper on ESP, and Psychologists Sense Outrage, New York Times, January 6, 2011.

64

Jeff Zeleny and Megan Thee-Brenan, New Poll Finds a Deep Distrust of Government, New York Times, October 26, 2011.

65

Lydia Saad, Americans Hold Firm to Support for Death Penalty, Gallup.com, November 17, 2008.

66

Телефонное интервью с Фрэнком Ньюпором, November 30, 2011.

67

Stanley Presser, Sex, Samples, and Response Errors, Contemporary Sociology 24, no. 4 (July 1995): 296–98.

68

Эти результаты были опубликованы в двух разных формах, одна из которых более академическая, чем другая. Edward O. Lauman, The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994); Robert T. Michael, John H. Gagnon, Edward O. Laumann, and Gina Kolata, Sex in America: A Definitive Survey (New York: Grand Central Publishing, 1995).

69

Kaye Wellings, book review in British Medical Journal 310, no. 6978 (February 25, 1995): 540.

70

John DeLamater, The NORC Sex Survey, Science 270, no. 5235 (October 20, 1995): 501.

71

Presser, Sex, Samples, and Response Errors.

72

Marianne Bertrand, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence F. Katz, Dynamics of the Gender Gap for Young Professionals in the Corporate and Financial Sectors, NBER Working Paper 14681, January 2009.

73

M. G. Marmot, Geoffrey Rose, M. Shipley, and P. J. S. Hamilton, Employment Grade and Coronary Heart Disease in British Civil Servants, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 32, no. 4 (1978): 244–49.

74

Hans Bosma, Michael G. Marmot, Harry Hemingway, Amanda C. Nicholson, Eric Brunner, and Stephen A. Stansfeld, Low Job Control and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Whitehall II (Prospective Cohort) Study, British Medical Journal 314, no. 7080 (February 22, 1997): 558–65.

75

Peter L. Schnall, Paul A. Landesbergis, and Dean Baker, Job Strain and Cardiovascular Disease, Annual Review of Public Health 15 (1994): 381–411.

76

M. G. Marmot, H. Bosma, H. Hemingway, E. Brunner, and S. Stansfeld, Contribution of Job Control and Other Risk Factors to Social Variations in Coronary Heart Disease Incidence, Lancet 350 (July 26, 1997): 235–39.

77

Gary Taubes, Do We Really Know What Makes Us Healthy? New York Times Magazine, September 16, 2007.

78

Vive la Difference, Economist, October 20, 2001.

79

Taubes, Do We Really Know?

80

College Board, 2011 College-Bound Seniors Total Group Profile Report, http://research.collegeboard.org/programs/sat/data/archived/cb-seniors-2011.

81

Hans Bosma et al., Low Job Control and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Whitehall II (Prospective Cohort) Study, British Medical Journal 314, no. 7080 (February 22, 1997): 564.

82

Taubes, Do We Really Know?

83

Gautam Naik, Scientists’Elusive Goal: Reproducing Study Results, Wall Street Journal, December 2, 2011.

84

John P. A. Ioannidis, Contradicted and Initially Stronger Effects in Highly Cited Clinical Research, Journal of the American Medical Association 294, no. 2 (July 13, 2005): 218–28.

85

Scientific Accuracy and Statistics, Economist, September 1, 2005.

86

Gina Kolata, Arthritis Surgery in Ailing Knees Is Cited as Sham, New York Times, July 11, 2002.

87

Benedict Carey, Long-Awaited Medical Study Questions the Power of Prayer, New York Times, March 31, 2006.

88

Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, What Have Researchers Learned from Project STAR? Harris School Working Paper, August 2006.

89

Gina Kolata, A Surprising Secret to a Long Life: Stay in School, New York Times, January 3, 2007.

90

Adriana Lleras-Muney, The Relationship between Education and Adult Mortality in the United States, Review of Economic Studies 72, no. 1 (2005): 189–221.

91

Kurt Badenhausen, Top Colleges for Getting Rich, Forbes.com, July 30, 2008.

92

Stacy Berg Dale and Alan Krueger, Estimating the Payoff to Attending a More Selective College: An Application of Selection on Observables and Unobservables, Quarterly Journal of Economics 117, no. 4 (November 2002): 1491–527.

93

Alan B. Krueger, Children Smart Enough to Get into Elite Schools May Not Need to Bother, New York Times, April 27, 2000.

94

Randi Hjalmarsson, Juvenile Jails: A Path to the Straight and Narrow or to Hardened Criminality? Journal of Law and Economics 52, no. 4 (November 2009): 779–809.

95

James Surowiecki, A Billion Prices Now, The New Yorker, May 30, 2011.

96

Malcolm Gladwell, Offensive Play, The New Yorker, October 19, 2009.

97

Ken Belson, N.F.L. Roundup; Concussion Suits Joined, New York Times, February 1, 2012.

98

Shirley S. Wang, Autism Diagnoses Up Sharply in U.S., Wall Street Journal, March 30, 2012.

99

Catherine Rice, Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5810a1.htm.

100

Alan Zarembo, Autism Boom: An Epidemic of Disease or of Discovery? latimes.com, December 11, 2011.

101

Michael Ganz, The Lifetime Distribution of the Incremental Societal Costs of Autism, Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 161, no. 4 (April 2007): 343–49.

102

Gardiner Harris and Anahad O’Connor, On Autism’s Cause, It’s Parents vs. Research, New York Times, June 25, 2005.

103

Julie Steenhuysen, Study Turns Up 10 Autism Clusters in California, Yahoo! News, January 5, 2012.

104

Joachim Hallmayer et al., Genetic Heritability and Shared Environmental Factors among Twin Pairs with Autism, Archives of General Psychiatry 68, no. 11 (November 2011): 1095–102.

105

Gardiner Harris and Anahad O’Connor, On Autism’s Cause, It’s Parents vs. Research, New York Times, June 25, 2005.

106

Fernanda Santos and Robert Gebeloff, Teacher Quality Widely Diffused, Ratings Indicate, New York Times, February 24, 2012.

107

Winnie Hu, With Teacher Ratings Set to Be Released, Union Opens Campaign to Discredit Them, New York Times, February 23, 2012.

108

T. Schall and G. Smith, Do Baseball Players Regress to the Mean? American Statistician 54 (2000): 231–35.

109

Scott E. Carrell and James E. West, Does Professor Quality Matter? Evidence from Random Assignment of Students to Professors, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 14081, June 2008.

110

Esther Duflo and Rema Hanna, Monitoring Works: Getting Teachers to Come to School, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 11880, December 2005.

111

Christopher Udry, Esther Duflo: 2010 John Bates Clark Medalist, Journal of Economic Perspectives 25, no. 3 (Summer 2011): 197–216.

112

Esther Duflo, Michael Kremer, and Jonathan Robinson, Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 15131, July 2009.

113

Esther Duflo and Christopher Udry, Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Côte d’Ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices, Working Paper, December 21, 2004.

114

Charles Duhigg, How Companies Learn Your Secrets, New York Times Magazine, February 16, 2012.

115

Somini Sengupta and Evelyn M. Rusli, Personal Data’s Value? Facebook Set to Find Out, New York Times, February 1, 2012.

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Источник: Чарльз Уилан. Голая статистика. Самая интересная книга о самой скучной науке. 2016

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